By George A. Petrides
Детально охарактеризованы все дикорастущие деревья, кустарники и древесные лианы, обитающие к югу от Ньюфаундленда, к северу от Северной Каролины и Тенесси, к востоку от Дакоты и Канзаса. Охарактеризованы 646 вида, включая форму и расположение листьев, высоту, цвет, строение кроны, сезон цветения и плоды. Четкие рисунки показывают листья, цветы, силуэты деревьев и прочие характеристики.
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Extra resources for A Field Guide to Trees and Shrubs: Northeastern and North-Central United States and Southeastern and South-Central Canada
2012). The process of infection in baculoviruses is, in most species, a two-stage process with a primary infection and amplification stage in the midgut followed by a systemic infection phase by which the infection spreads throughout the body and which concludes with the massive production of OBs. , 1997). In Gammabaculoviruses and Deltabaculoviruses, where infections are restricted to midgut tissues, the production of progeny OBs is much lower. Infections occur following ingestion of OBs by a susceptible larva, usually during feeding on OB-contaminated food such as foliage.
Thus, it frequently needs to be combined with the implementation of cultural controls, crop sanitation, pheromone mating disruption, parasitoid and predator conservation with some use of “soft” chemistry to achieve effective IPM (Lacey and Shapiro-Ilan, 2008). This case study of CpGV illustrates that even a less than ideal baculovirus can be successful, but it needs always to be considered as part of an overall IPM system and that includes a focus on maintaining good insect resistance management practice.
50 ha−1, making it more economic than chemical alternatives (Moscardi, 1999; Moscardi and Sosa-Gomez, 2007). In addition, the early adoption of nonliquefying isolates of AgMNPV was very important in improving the viability of hand collecting infected larvae as part of the field production system (Moscardi and Sosa-Gomez, 2007). , 1996), no resistance problems appeared in the field to threaten control, despite the extensive use of this virus on up to 2 million ha (Moscardi and Sosa-Gomez, 2007).
A Field Guide to Trees and Shrubs: Northeastern and North-Central United States and Southeastern and South-Central Canada by George A. Petrides